Training Tips


Dog training is about communicating with a dog. It is letting a dog know what you would like it to do, and then getting compliance from that dog. There are three skills that I use when I train a dog or help a person modify their dog’s behavior. The three skills are awareness, patience, and practice. Anybody can be aware, anybody can be patient, and anybody can practice.

Part 2: Patience

“Do you have the patience to wait 
Till your mud settles and the water is clear?
Can you remain unmoving 
Until the right action arises by itself?

The Master doesn’t seek fulfillment.
Not seeking, not expecting,
She is present, and can welcome all things.

Lao Tzu 
Tao Te Ching, Chapter 15

Patience, as I define it here, is the ability to not mind when things (temporarily) do not go as intended and the confidence to know that things will ultimately go as intended. When training and living with animals, patience is very important.  Being patient is a practice and a skill. To be patient is to be stubborn. Since I started actively practicing patience in my dog training, I noticed that I am more patient in other areas of life. Nothing rattles me any more. 

I think about patience a lot, because it is my natural tendency to be impatient. I will briefly outline some of the strategies that I use to remain cool, implacable (implacability is also key part of getting things done) and patient while working with any and all dogs. 

Self-awareness is the first step in remaining patient. My last entry covers awareness. So I will skip over that and you can check it out here.

When patience is lost, the first emotion to arise is frustration. Frustration tends to lead to anger, and anger often leads to action, and angry action can cause guilt. There is no use for frustration, anger, or guilt in dog training. Anger, frustration, and guilt are detrimental to interspecies communication, will harm any relationship and must be eliminated from the training process. 

So, in order to avoid frustration and anger, I separate myself (or my ego) from the result and I put it into the process, the actions that I am doing in order to communicate with the dog. In other words, I train myself not to care if the dog sits, but to care a lot about what I do to get the dog to sit. I focus in detail on my actions so that I can replicate it precisely at anytime. I also notice the results of what I am doing. So that I know what I can expect if I do that exact thing again. This is difficult to do as a professional dog trainer, whose reputation and success depends on the dog’s obedience and ability to do as asked. When I am training a dog I cannot afford to think of reputation or success, because those are results as well. Instead I focus on process. Knowing that if the process is correct, the sit will happen, the success will come, and the reputation will grow. 

Another thing that I do to remain patient when practicing with dogs is to set a time limit. This is important. A time limit allows me to make the sometimes-emotional activity of training a dog into a job. I am punching a clock. A lot of times training a dog is about repeating the same action over and over again. By setting a time limit, I can know when the exercise will be over before I begin. It also gives me a quick and soothing way to take a break if I start to get frustrated. I breathe and check my time.

The final thing that I do to remain patient is, acknowledge the beginning of frustration decide I will not go that route for the remaining minutes in the training session. This can only be done by practicing self-awareness. I am always looking for signs of frustration in my mood and emotions.  

Ultimately, my patience in dog training comes from awareness, mental preparation, and trust in the process. The rewards of patience in dog training are good communication with the dog, a better relationship with the dog, happiness and success, and a good reputation as a dog trainer.

Thank you and keep practicing. Your canine communication skills are very important in improving your relationship with your dog. Enjoy Your Dog!!!


Awareness & Communicating With A Dog

slide-reliable-dog-trainingDog training is about communicating with a dog. It is letting a dog know what you would like it to do, and then getting compliance from that dog. There are three skills that I use when I train a dog or help a person modify their dog’s behavior. The three skills are awareness, patience, and practice. Anybody can be aware, anybody can be patient, and anybody can practice.

Part 1: Awareness

Awareness simply means attentiveness. Awareness is the act of paying attention. We influence the world around us through our own behavior. The awareness that we need to develop first is self-awareness. To be aware of myself, I question myself about my own self-awareness. Before I work with any dog client or human client I ask myself, “How do I feel physically and emotionally, and what is my energy level like right now?” I am not always looking to feel great, that would be unreasonable. I just want to know does anything hurt? Or is everything healthy? Am I happy? Distracted? Anxious? Nervous? Relaxed? Calm?  I also need to be aware of my desire and what I would like to communicate, and what I would like to see done, as well as my goals. Then I will be aware of my actions, and how I feel physically, my mood, and how my energy levels at this time will affect my actions. I am also aware that my actions are bringing me closer to my desired result. The point is to acknowledge and accept the facts of the present moment, not to change, or even judge.

We also need to be aware of our dog. I ask myself, how does my dog feel? Do I see any signs of physical or emotional comfort or discomfort? What is my dog’s energy level right now? Is my dog tuned in and paying attention, or is she distracted? Does she look nervous, anxious, over stimulated, or calm and attentive? How does her physical state, mood, and energy affect her current behavior? How am I affecting my dog, her mood and her behavior? I ask myself, how is her current behavior different from the behavior that I would like to see? Again, the main point is not to judge but to simply to be aware.

We also need to be aware of the environment that we are currently in. The environment as I am defining it here is everything that is not me or my dog. What are the facts of the current environment? Is it hot, cold, wet, or dry? Are there a lot of distractions? Is it quiet? What is the feeling that I sense from the environment? What is the energy level of the environment? How does this environment affect me physically? How does it affect my mood, feelings, and energy level? How does this environment affect my dog? Are there things in the environment that my dog is aware of but that I am not? How influential is this present environment on my dogs behavior? Is this the right environment for training my dog?

These are the types of question that I ask myself whenever I am with my dog. I try not to be distracted away from these types of questions. Distraction is everywhere. I developed a program that I go through when I am with my dog to help me stay focused on my dog.

  1. I have time limits for activities. That way if someone calls or texts, or if my mind wanders to a worry or a thought, I can always tell myself that this time is for me and my dog.
  2. Before interacting with my dog, I check in with myself. I ask the self-awareness questions that are listed above. If I find myself too excited, I take a few breaths and calm down.
  3. I check in with my dog. I assess her body language, and energy level. If I am doing a lower energy activity like walking I look for her to be calm before proceeding.

Developing this awareness can be difficult. There is a lot to be aware of, and no matter how hard I try, there are times when I am with my dog and I am not giving her the attention that the situation requires. All I can do is trust that she will forgive me, and try to be more aware the next time. With patience and practice I am sure that there is room for improvement. I have done it and I have seen others do it. So I you can do it. Thank you and Enjoy Your Dog!!!


Dogs lean towards that which is comfortable, And away from that which is not comfortable.

Dogs lean towards that which is comfortable,
And away from that which is not comfortable.

This is a powerful idea when applied to dog training. It simply means that dogs look for comfort, enjoyment, and happiness, and that they will do things that cause them comfort, enjoyment, and happiness.

Before we talk about using comfort and discomfort in training a dog there are some questions to address.

First, what give us as humans, dog owners, and dog lovers the right to make our dog uncomfortable?

To answer this we need to turn to our knowledge about dogs. Dogs learn through association. Association is everything, or dogs have associations with everything. That is a big deal. Associations need some consistency to be formed. If you walk your dog every day at the same time, you dog will associate that time of day with a walk. If you get excited and give your dog a lot of attention when your dogs jumps on people, our dogs will associate a boost of excited energy and attention when she jumps on people. If every time your dog sits when asked, you get excited and give her attention she will associate excitement and attention with sitting and, more generally, with doing what is asked of her.

We live in a world that is dangerous for dogs. We live in a human world and dogs live with us. To keep a dog safe in this human world we have to use the dog’s natural ability to form associations and to do things that are comfortable, while avoiding things that are uncomfortable. In many cases the human owner of the dog may see a danger, or a reason for the dog to not do, or stop doing something, the owner need to be able to communicate quickly because the dog may not understand.

Second, is it necessary for a trainer to associate some intentional and controlled discomfort with misbehavior, lack of attention and non-compliance?

For me the answer is yes. Dogs are not born understanding the concept of “No”. I don’t think people understand that idea at birth either. The difference is people learn human language, dogs do not. Dogs learn through association, so with training we can associate the word no with discomfort, and the word yes with comfort. A dog can learn that it is more comfortable and better for them to do as they are told by controlled and proper use of intentional comfort and intentional discomfort. In time we will not need to create discomfort with the word “no”, just saying “no” will bring discomfort to the activity that the dog is doing and the dog will naturally stop that activity.

So for example the dog is chasing a squirrel, and leaving the park, the owner of the dog can say a word and that dog no longer feels comfortable chasing the squirrel and does not leave the park. That dog may not notice the busy street outside the park. The owner does and is able to keep the dog from entering into danger through associations that dog made with that word.

Third, how much discomfort is enough discomfort to communicate to a dog that good behavior, paying attention, and  complying are good things to do?

A good dog trainer is always trying to do as little as possible, using the least amount of effort required to get the dog’s attention and inform her of her mistake. No More Than That! There are four ways to use controlled discomfort, and controlled comfort to influence a dog’s behavior, to create associations and to create habits. They are Negative Punishment, Positive Punishment, Negative Reinforcement, and Positive Reinforcement.

I personally do not like or use the term punishment; punishment has so many connotations. I think of punishment in dog training as correction. If there are two pens on a table and you asked me to pass the pen and I passed one but you wanted the other one, you would correct me with, “No, not that pen, the other pen.” It would not be your intent to punish me. I do not intend to punish the dog, I intend to bring her attention to the behavior and communicate that it was not what I was intending or what I wanted her to do.

Simple negative punishment is enough for some dogs. Negative punishment is the removal of a desired item (item might be a person, a toy or a treat) after an undesired behavior.  When a dog trainer gives a dog a timeout that is negative punishment, because you remove contact from the dog. Isolation causes emotional discomfort, and anything that causes discomfort the dog will avoid.

Some dogs do better with Positive Punishment (correction), which involves creating and presenting an uncomfortable outcome after an undesired behavior. When a blind person uses a training collar to correct their dog for walking too close to a building that is Positive Punishment. The pull of the training collar is a bit uncomfortable to the dog and if every time the dog walks too close to the building she is corrected, she will stop walking too close to buildings.

In some situations Negative Reinforcement works well in making associations and creating habits. Negative Reinforcement is strengthening a behavior by stopping or removing a negative outcome. An example of this would be turning up the heat to get a person to leave a room. The heat in the room is annoying or uncomfortable and a person will leave. The reward for leaving is cooling down and feeling comfortable. With good use of our training tools we can create that effect with dogs.

Finally there is Positive Reinforcement. Positive Reinforcement is a very powerful tool in shaping behaviors, forming associations and creating habits. It works by rewarding a dog after a wanted behavior. Positive reinforcement is great for letting the dog know that you agree with the behavior that she is displaying. This works really well for some dog because dogs lean toward that which is comfortable and Positive Reinforcement is all about comfort.

All of the techniques have flaws, but when used together they do not fail, and there flaws are countered. Positive and Negative together make reality. We can’t have one without the other. It is because some things are negative that other things become positive. Our job is to balance and align the positive and the negative in our dogs lives.

You want your dog to choose not to jump on people, because you think that jumping on people is a bad thing to do. Your dog does not think it is a bad thing to do. She enjoys it. If we correct that behavior if will become uncomfortable for the dog to jump on people and the dog will soon associate jumping on people as being an uncomfortable thing to do. Your dog will stop jumping on people and you will reinforce that positive behavior with a pat on the head. It is an honest, straight forward, easy concept and your dog will understand you better because it works in concert with all the other things that we know about dogs. Thank you, Keep Practicing, and Enjoy Your Dog!!!


Why/When Should My Dog Wear A Muzzle?

dog with muzzleTo most people, muzzles provoke images of lunging and snarling aggressive dogs. It’s unfortunate and unfair that the stigma associated with a dog wearing a muzzle is that the dog must be dangerous. Personally when I see a dog wearing a properly fitted muzzle I feel reassured that their owner is being responsible and keeping their dog and the public safe. There are many reasons a dog may be wearing a muzzle: the dog may be recovering from a painful injury, the dog may get nervous around strange people or dogs or in some cities/states there are breed specific laws requiring it regardless of the dog’s history.

Be Proactive

Don’t wait until you NEED your dog to wear a muzzle. Start conditioning your dog to wearing a muzzle as early as possible. Maybe you have a dog that gets anxious at the vet. Training your dog to wear a muzzle can help lower the tension in the exam room for both the humans and your dog because no one is worrying about getting bit. Even the friendliest dog may bite when injured and in pain. We never want to think about an emergency happening to our dog but it’s best to be prepared just in case. Part of preparing a doggy first aid kit is to have a properly fitted muzzle for your dog and to condition your dog to happily wearing it. Some dogs absolutely hate having their nails trimmed. Your groomer will thank you for bringing them a dog who will happily wear a muzzle while they groom your dog so they can keep all their fingers and toes.

If you have a dog who has shown any aggression towards people or dogs, now is the time to start conditioning the muzzle. Prevent a bite before it happens. A dog with a bite record is a serious thing and can spell disaster not only for you from a liability standpoint but also for your dog as they can be declared a dangerous dog which can have deadly consequences. Work with an experienced trainer to come up with a training plan in addition to your muzzle conditioning.

Using a muzzle can allow you to work on behavior modification with your dog. Whether the issue is human or dog aggression or fearful behavior, your first priority should be the safety of everyone involved.

Be Responsible

If your dog already has a bite history, whether with people or dogs, your first step should be muzzle conditioning your dog.  Seek help from an experienced trainer to come up with a behavior modification and training plan. Muzzling your dog should not be used in place of training. A muzzle will only prevent your dog being able to bite; but a dog wearing a muzzle can still cause injury.

Muzzles should NOT be used for things like stopping your dog from barking, chewing, or eating things off the ground or for a puppy who is play biting. Work with a trainer for tips on how to deal with those issues.

Things to remember when using a muzzle:

  • Proper fit of the muzzle is very important! Make sure you purchase the right size and style muzzle for your dog. It should be well-fitted and comfortable for your dog, allowing for panting and ideally drinking water and eating treats. Contact the manufacturer directly for assistance in sizing your dog. I recommend using a basket type muzzle such as Jafco or Baskerville brand muzzles.
  • Create a positive association with your dog to their muzzle. Go slow and introduce it in a fun way. Make it a game! It’s “Party Hat” time!
  • Mesh muzzles aka grooming muzzles should not be used except for extremely short periods of time or in an emergency. These muzzles work by holding the dog’s mouth closed which prevents panting and can cause a dog to overheat quickly especially in a stressful situation.
  • Always use a muzzle in combination with training. Muzzles are not a replacement for addressing the issues your dog is having. Finding an experienced trainer and working with them to help your dog is a must.

Steps to Muzzle Condition your dog:

  1. You will need some super duty high value treats like spray cheese, cooked chicken, hot dogs, etc. Sitting in a chair with your dog sitting in front of you, show the muzzle and give your dog a jackpot of treats. Put the muzzle away (behind your back) and stop giving treats. Continue showing your dog the muzzle and treating until your dog looks excitedly for a treat when he sees the muzzle. Your goal is to make the muzzle a good thing.
  2. Put a few treats or spread some peanut butter/spray cheese inside the muzzle and let your dog eat/lick it out of the muzzle. When the muzzle has been licked clean, put more treats/cheese in the muzzle and repeat.
  3. You can add a verbal cue like “muzzle” or my favorite “party hat” immediately before your dog puts his nose in the muzzle to eat the treats. Encourage your dog to keep his nose in the muzzle by feeding more treats through the muzzle, increasing the length of time over several sessions that he holds his nose in the muzzle before treating. When your dog is happily pushing his nose into the muzzle on your verbal cue, continue to the next step.
  4. As your dog is licking the muzzle clean and you are feeding treats through the muzzle, gently secure the strap for a brief moment and then remove the strap. Gradually leave the straps secured for longer: 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 3 minutes, etc.
  5. Remember to keep sessions short initially. Multiple, short sessions each day is ideal. Gradually increase the time your dog wears the muzzle, building up to wearing the muzzle for 15-20 minutes at home before using the muzzle for training or in stressful situations.


Questions about your dog’s behavior or need help muzzle conditioning your dog? Contact Argos Dog Training and Enjoy Your Dog!!!

-Heather Travis


Why Your Dog Wants A Gym Membership: Treadmill Training For Your Dog

Recently I have been promoting treadmill training for dogs more and more to my clients. Most of the time it comes up with clients who have young, energetic dogs that need to burn some extra energy. However, there are benefits to treadmill training a dog even if they aren’t a high-energy, working breed.

Treadmill training your dog is a great way to:

  • Supplement exercise in addition to your daily structured walks
  • Exercise your dog during inclement weather (i.e. last winter’s huge snowfall, dangerously cold/hot temperatures)
  • Give your dog a “job” to do
  • Help decrease anxiety in a nervous dog
  • Build confidence in a timid dog
  • Add consistency to your dog’s daily life

How to introduce your dog to the treadmill:

  1. With the treadmill OFF, use treats or dog food to lure/motivate your dog onto the treadmill. Praise and treat your dog when he gets on the treadmill. Motivate your dog off the treadmill. Repeat over and over until your dog is comfortable and happy to get on the treadmill. This process may take a few minutes, a few sessions, a few days or longer. Don’t rush this step!
  2. With the treadmill OFF, lure/motivate your dog onto the treadmill. Praise and treat once they are on. Attach collars and leashes to your dog. You will need 2 leashes and 2 well-fitting collars (martingale or slip collars work best). You should have a leash attached from the left side of the treadmill to your dog and another leash attached from the right side of the treadmill to your dog to help keep them centered and from jumping/falling off. **See photo and video link below for proper setup.
  3. When your dog is properly secured, turn the treadmill ON at the lowest setting. Stand on the side of the treadmill to help your dog stay centered. Note: Initially your dog may resist walking on the treadmill. Stay calm and quiet, help your dog remain centered on the treadmill but let your dog figure it out. This may only take a few seconds or it may take a few minutes for them to get the hang of it.
  4. When your dog is starting to get the hang of walking on the treadmill, you can increase the speed gradually until you reach a comfortable walking speed for your dog. Some dogs like to go very slow while other dogs prefer a faster paced walk/jog. Note: Try not to talk to your dog too much as this can distract them from their focus on walking.
  5. Let your dog continue to walk for 5 minutes or so then slowly lower the speed and turn the treadmill OFF. When the treadmill is OFF and completely stopped, unclip your dog from the leashes on the treadmill and help him off calmly. Don’t allow your dog to jump off the treadmill.
  6. Repeat these steps and gradually increase the time your dog walks on the treadmill building up to 30-45 minutes or as instructed by your vet.

treadmill dog

Proper leash/collar setup

***  This is an excellent video and explanation of how to start your dog on the treadmill by Ted Efthymiadis, owner of Mango Dogs in Canada.

Things to consider before starting a treadmill program with your dog:

  • Is your dog physically healthy and able to walk/jog for 30 minutes or more at a time? Check with your vet if you are unsure.
  • How old is your dog? Just like normal running and jogging, I usually recommend clients wait until a dog is fully grown before they start any type of repetitive-motion, high-impact exercise. There is some risk to very young dogs whose joints and bones are not done growing. Again, check with your vet for what is a safe age is to start your dog with this type of exercise.
  • Where do I get a treadmill? Look on Craigslist or other online used-for-sale sites. Most people who purchase treadmills buy them with the resolution to get into great shape but then generally the treadmill ends up as a clothes hanger or dust collector in the corner of a garage. Working treadmills that people are just trying to get rid of or sell very cheaply are usually pretty easy to come by.

Questions about treadmill training your dog? Feel free to contact Argos Dog Training! We’re here to help!

Enjoy Your Dog!!!

-Heather Travis

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